El techo de cristal en las pequeñas y medianas empresas

  1. Fernández Palacín, Fernando
  2. López Fernández, Macarena
  3. Maeztu Herrera, Inmaculada
  4. Martín Prius, Antonio
Revista de Estudios Empresariales. Segunda época

ISSN: 1988-9046

Year of publication: 2010

Issue Title: Homenaje a la Profesora Olga Senise Barrio

Issue: 1

Pages: 231-247

Type: Article

More publications in: Revista de Estudios Empresariales. Segunda época


In spite of social and political changes throughout in the last decades, it�s still evident the low presence of women in managerial positions. In the pursuit of contribute with the equal opportunities principle, this paper analyzes the glass ceiling in 816 SMEs of different activity areas from Andalusia. It shows that the ruling culture of labor market is still causing clear vertical gender segregation.

Bibliographic References

  • Adecco (2009): III Encuesta Adecco a mujeres directivas. Publicado en www.adecco.es.
  • Adler, N.J. (1993): “An international perspective on the barriers to the advancement of women managers”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, vol. 42, nº 4, pp. 289-300.
  • Albrecht, J., Björklund, A. y Vroman, S. (2003): “Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden?”, Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 21, nº 1, pp. 145-177.
  • Baker, B., Wendt, A. y Slonaker, W. (2002): “An analysis of gender equity in the federal labor relations career field”, Public Personnel Management, vol. 3, nº 4, pp. 559-567.
  • Barberá, E., Sarrió, M. y Ramos, A. (2000): “Mujeres y estilos de dirección: el valor de la diversidad”, Revista de Intervención Psicosocial, vol. 9, nº 1.
  • Barnet-Verzat, Ch. y Wolf, F.Ch. (2008): “Gender wage gap and the glass ceiling effect: a firm-level investigation”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29, nº 6, pp. 486- 502.
  • Baron, J.N. y Newman, A.E. (1990): “For What It´s Worth: Organizations, Occupations, and the Value of Work Done by Women and Nonwhites”, American Sociological Review, vol. 55, pp. 155-175.
  • Barrick, M., Stewart, G., Neubert, M. y Mount, M. (1998): “Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 83, nº 3, pp. 377-391.
  • Becker, G.S. (1964): Human Capital, New York, National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Blau, F.D. y Ferber, M.A. (1992): The Economics of Women, men and Work, Englewood
  • Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bolton, Sh. y Muzio, D. (2008): “The paradoxical processes of feminization in the professions: the case of established, aspiring and semi-professions”, Work, Employment & Society, vol. 22, nº 2, pp. 281-299.
  • Brenner, O.C., Tomkiewicz, J. y Schein, V.E. (1989): “The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics revisited”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 32, pp. 662-669.
  • Brett, J.M. y Stroh, L.K. (1997): “Jumping Ship: Who Benefits from an External Labor Market Career Strategy?”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, nº 3, pp. 331-341.
  • Burke, S. y Collins, K.M. (2001): “Gender differences in Leadership styles and Management Skills”, Women in Management Review, vol. 16, nº 5/6, pp 244-256.
  • Burke, R.J. y McKeen, C.A. (1996): “Do Women at the Top Make a Difference? Gender Proportions and the Experiences of Managerial and Professional Women”, Human Relations, vol. 49, nº 8, pp. 1093-1104.
  • Callejo, J. (2004): “Disponibilidad temporal corporativa y género: Aproximaciones empíricas”, Anduli: Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales, nº 4.
  • Callejo, J., Gómez, C. y Casado, E. (2004): El techo de cristal en el sistema educativo español. Madrid, UNED Ediciones.
  • Camisón, C. (2000): “Reflexiones sobre la investigación científica de la Pyme”, Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, vol. 6, nº 2, pp. 13-30.
  • Campbell, K. y Mínguez-Vera, A. (2008): “Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 83, pp. 435-451.
  • Chernesky, R.H. (2003): “Examining the Glass Ceiling: Gender Influences on Promotion Decisions”, Administration in Social Work, vol. 27, nº 2, pp. 13-18.
  • Clark, S.C. (2001): “Work cultures and work/family balance”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, vol. 58, nº 3, pp. 348-365.
  • Cohen, P.N. y Huffman, M.L. (2003): “Individuals, Jobs, and Labor Markets: The Devaluation of Women’s Work”, American Sociological Review, vol. 68, nº 3, pp. 443-463.
  • Correll, S.J. (2004): “Constraints into preferences: gender, status and emerging career aspirations”, American Sociological Review, vol. 69, pp. 93-113.
  • Crompton, R. y Harris, F. (1998): “Explaining women’s employment patterns: `orientations to work´ revisited”, British Journal of Sociology, vol. 49, nº 1, pp. 118-136.
  • Cross, Ch. (2010): “Barriers to the executive suite: evidence from Ireland”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal. vol. 31, nº 2, pp. 104-119.
  • Dambrin, C. y Lambert, C. (2008): “Mothering or auditing?. The case of two big Four in France”, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 21, nº 4, pp. 474-506.
  • Davidson, M.J. y Cooper, C.L. (1992): Shattering the Glass Ceiling: The Woman manager. Paul Chapman Publishing.
  • Dean, A.M. et al. (2009): “Women and minorities in corporate America: Empirical examination”, Academy International Conference, Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict. Proceedings, New Orleans 2009, vol. 14, nº 1, pp. 2-6.
  • Eagly, A.H., Mladinic, A. y Otto, S. (1991): “Are women evaluated more favourably than men?. An analysis of attitudes, beliefs and emotions”, Psychological of Women Quarterly, vol. 15, pp. 203-216.
  • Estebaranz-García, A. (2006): “Integrar competencias: Un activo intangible”, Revista de Empleo en Internet”. Servicio Andaluz de Empleo. Junta de Andalucía, nº 12 (http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/empleo/revistaempleo/revista/RevistaEmpleo/Portal/ RevistaEmpleo/).
  • European Commission. Employment, social affairs and equal opportunities. Publicado en http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=418&langId=en
  • Falkenberg, L. (1990): “Improving the Accuracy of Stereotypes Within the Workplace”, Journal of Management, vol. 16, nº 1, pp. 107-118.
  • Feingold, A. (1994): “Gender Differences in Personality: A Meta-analysis”, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 116, nº 3, pp. 429-456.
  • Finn, C., Chattopadhyay, P. y Ashkanasy, N.M. (2001): “Emotions in diverse teams: An affective events perspective”, Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 53, p. 77-77.
  • Gadenne, D. (1998): “Critical Success Factors for Small Business: An Inter-Industry Comparison”, International Small Business Journal, vol. 17, nº 1, pp. 36-56.
  • Glick, P. et al. (2000): “Beyond the prejudice as simple antipathy: hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 79, nº 5, pp. 1-13.
  • Grañeras, M., Olmo, G., Gil, N., Garcia, M. y Boix, M. (2001): Las mujeres en el sistema educativo, Madrid, CIDE.
  • Haddock, G. y Zanna, M. (1994): “Preferring `housewives´ to `feminist´ categorization and the favourability of attitudes towards women”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 18, pp. 25-52.
  • Hofmann-Lun, I., Schöfeld, S. y Tschirner, N. (1997): Mentoring para mujeres en Europa Estrategias para la promoción laboral de las mujeres-, Deutsches Jugendinstitut e.V. Münich.
  • Hoobler, J.M., Wayen, S.J. y Lemmon, G. (2009): “Bosses’s perceptions of family-work conflict and women’s promotability: Glass ceiling effects”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 52, nº 5.
  • Hultil, M. (2003): “Some take the glass escalator, some hit the glass ceiling?: Career consequence of occupational sex segregation”, Work and Occupations, vol. 30, nº 1, pp. 30-61.
  • Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía (2009): Mujeres Andaluzas. Datos Básicos 2009, Consejería de Economía y Hacienda.
  • Jackson, S.E. y Ruderman, M.N. (1996): Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workplace, American Psychological Association, Washington.
  • Jacobsen, J.P. (1994): “Trends in Work Force Segregation, 1960-1990”, Social Science Quarterly, vol. 75, nº 1, pp. 204-211.
  • Jimeno, F.J. y Redondo, M. (2008): La balanza del poder corporativo. El “techo de cristal” en el tejido empresarial de la provincia de Jaén, Diputación Provincial de Jaén. Consejo Económico y Social de la Provincia de Jaén, Jaén.
  • Judge, T.A., Cable, D.M., Boudreau, J.W. y Bretz, R.S. (1995): “An Empirical Investigation of the Predictors of Executive Career Success”, Personnel Psychology, vol. 48, nº 3, pp. 485-519.
  • Kilbourne, B.S., Farkas, G., Beron, K., Weir, D. y England, P. (1994): “Returns to Skill, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men”, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 100, nº 3, pp. 689-719.
  • Korabik, K. (1990): “Androgyny and Leadership Style”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 9, nº 4/5, pp. 283-292.
  • Kovailainen, A. (1990): “How do male and female managers in banking view their work roles and their subordinates?”, Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 6, pp. 143-159.
  • Levin, L.A. y Mattis, M. (2006): “Corporate and academic responses to gender diversity”, Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25, nº 1, pp. 60-70.
  • Macpherson, D.A. y Hirsch, B.T. (1995): “Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women’s Jobs Pay Less?”, Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 104, nº 5, pp. 869-895.
  • Marshall, J. (1993): “Organizational cultures and woman managers: exploring the dynamics of resilience”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, vol. 42, nº 4, pp. 313- 322.
  • Maume, D.J. (2006): “Gender Differences in Taking Vacation Time”, Work and Occupations, vol. 33, nº 2, pp. 161-190.
  • McWhirter, E.H. (1997): “Perceived barriers to education and career: Ethnic and gender differences”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 50, pp. 124-140.
  • Metcalfe, B. (1985): “The Effects of socialisation on women’s management careers”, Management Bibliographies & Reviews, vol. 11, nº 3.
  • Morrison, A. y Von Glinow, M.A. (1990): “Women and minorities in management”, American Psychologist, vol. 45, pp. 200-208.
  • OIT (ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DEL TRABAJO) (2008): ABC de los derechos de las trabajadoras y la igualdad de género, Ginebra, OIT.
  • Pai, K. y Vaidya, S. (2006): “Glass Ceiling: Role of women in the corporate world”. Competition Forum, vol. 4, nº 2, pp. 421-426.
  • Pastor, R. y Martínez Benlloch, I. (1991): “Roles de género: aspectos psicológicos de las relaciones entre los sexos”, Investigaciones Psicológicas, vol. 9, pp. 117-143.
  • Petersen, T. y Morgan, L.A. (1995): “Separate and Unequal: Occupation-Establishment Sex Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap”, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 101, pp. 329-365.
  • Pleck, J.H. (1977): “The Work-Family Role system”, Social Problems, vol. 24, pp. 417-427.
  • Powell, G.N. (1993): Women and men in management. 2 ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Powell, G.N. (1999): Reflections on the Glass Ceiling. Recent trends and future prospects, en G.N. Powell, (Ed.), Handbook of Gender and Work, pp. 325-345, Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.
  • Powell, G.N. y Butterfield, D.A. (1989): “The `Good´ Manager: Did Androgyny Fare Better in the 1980s?”, Group and Organization Studies, vol. 14, nº 3, pp. 216-233.
  • Ramos, A., Sarrió, M., Barberá, E. y Candela, C. (2002): “Mujeres directivas y demandas organizacionales”, Revista de Psicología Social, vol. 17, nº 2, pp. 183-192.
  • Reid, M., Millar, W. y Kerr, B. (2004): “Sex-based glass ceiling in U.S. state-level bureaucracies, 1987-1997”, Administration & Society, vol. 36, nº 4, pp. 377-405.
  • Reskin, B. (1993): “Sex segregation in the Workplace”, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 19, pp. 241-270.
  • Reskin, B. y Bielby, D. (2005): “A Sociological Perspective on Gender and Career Outcomes”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 19, pp. 71-86.
  • Sarrió, M. (2004): La Psicología de Género a través del Techo de Cristal, Tesis Doctoral dirigida por Dra. E. Barberá. Universitat de València. Colección Economía y Empresa. Valencia: Comité Económico y Social de la Comunidad Valenciana y Fundación Bancaixa.
  • Sarrió, M., Barberá, E., Ramos, A. y Candela, C. (2002): “El techo de cristal en la promoción profesional de las mujeres”, Revista de Psicología Social, vol. 17, nº 2, pp. 167-182.
  • Schein, V. (1978): “Relationship between sex-role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among female managers”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 60, pp. 340-344.
  • Schein, V., Mueller, R. y Jacobson, C. (1989): “The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among college students”, Sex Roles, vol. 20, pp. 103-110.
  • Schein, V., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T. y Liu, J. (1996): “Think manager-think male: a global phenomenon”, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 17, pp. 33-41.
  • Schmitt, N. y Schneider, B. (1983): “Current issues in personnel selection”, en K.M. Rowland y G.R., Ferris (Eds.), Research in personnel and Human Resource management, pp. 85-125. Greenwich, JAI Press.
  • Schneer, J.A. y Reitman, F. (1995): “The Impact of Gender as Managerial Careers Unfold”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 47, nº 3, pp. 290-315.
  • Segerman-Peck, L.M. (1991): Networking and mentoring. A woman’s guide, Londres: Judy Piatkus Ltd.
  • Steinberg, R. y Shapiro, S. (1982): “Sex differences and personality traits of female and male Masters of Business Administration Students”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 67, nº 3, pp. 306-310.
  • Stroh, L.K., Brett, J.M. y Reilly, A.H. (1992): “All the Right Stuff: A Comparison of Female and Male Managers´ Career Progression”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 77, pp. 251-260.
  • Syed, J. y Murray, P.A. (2008): “A cultural feminist approach towards managing diversity in top management teams”, Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27, nº 5, pp. 413-432.
  • Tharenou, P., Latimer, S. y Conroy, D. (1994): “How to make it to the Top? An Examination of Influences on Women’s and Men’s managerial Advancement”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 37, nº 4, pp. 899-931.
  • Thatcher, S.M.B., Jehn, K.A. y Zanutto, E. (2003): “Cracks in diversity research: The effects of diversity faultlines on conflict and performance”, Group Decision and Negotiation, vol. 12, nº 3, pp. 217-241.
  • Thompson, D.E. y Gooler, L.E. (1996): “Capitalizing on the benefits of diversity through work teams”, en E.E. Kossek y S.A. Lobel (Eds.), Managing diversity: Human resource strategies for transforming the workplace, Blackwell, Cambridge.
  • Traves, J., Brockbank, A. y Tomlinson, F. (1997): “Careers of women managers in the retail industry”, Service Industries Journal, vol. 17, nº 1, pp. 133-154.
  • Van der Vegt, G. y Janssen, O. (2003): “Joint impact of interdependency and group diversity on innovation”, Journal of Management, vol. 29, nº 5, pp. 729-751.
  • Watson, C.M., Quatman, T. y Edler, E. (2002): “Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment”, Sex Roles, vol. 46, nº 9/10, pp. 323-335.
  • Wirth, L. (2002): Romper el Techo de Cristal: las mujeres en puestos de dirección, Madrid. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Informes OIT; 58.
  • Wong, P., Kettlewell, G. y Sproule, C. (1985): “On the importance of being masculine: sex role attributions and career achievement”, Sex Roles, vol. 11, pp. 757-777.