Eficacia del ejercicio físico multicomponente sobre los rasgos distintivos del envejecimiento y caracterización proteómica en adultos mayores. El proyecto intermae

Supervised by:
  1. David Jiménez Pavón Director
  2. Maria del Carmen Duran Co-director

Defence university: Universidad de Cádiz

Fecha de defensa: 08 March 2024

  1. Jon Irazusta Astiazaran Chair
  2. Vanesa España Romero Secretary
  3. Cristina Cadenas Sánchez Committee member

Type: Thesis

Teseo: 834891 DIALNET


The elderly population is growing sharply worldwide, thus there is an ongoing need to take measures to reduce all the health-consequences and costs associated to the ageing. Ageing is a complex process involving molecular and cellular damage influenced by genetic and environmental factors, leading to progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk. The primary hallmarks, among others, include damages in the proteome and telomeres that are accumulated with time. On the other hand, there is some evidence on the benefits of physical exercise to prevent diseases related to ageing. Therefore, the general aim of this International Doctoral Thesis is to determine the chronic effect of multicomponent exercise (MCE) on ageing hallmarks and the characterization of proteomic changes related to such intervention in older adults. To achieve this objective, three studies have been conducted, a systematic review (Study I) and longitudinal data from the INTERMAE (Study II and III) studies. In Study I, systematic searches were conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies were included if they measured at least one fitness component and telomere length (TL) or telomerase in humans. In Study II, eighty- six older adults (69 ± 3 years) were included. TL was measured by qPCR, telomerase concentration by ELISA and telomerase activity by a PCR-ELISA kit. In Study III, fourty-sex adults (69 ± 3 years) were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured by a library-free approach (directDIA), and plasma by a library generated from the DDA runs (DIA analysis). Fitness components were measured by The Senior Fitness Test battery (SFT), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed and handgrip strength. Cognitive measurements were assessed by: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for adults-IV (WAIS-IV). The main findings of this International Doctoral Thesis are: i) there is a small and moderate positive relationship between fitness and TL at cross-sectional level, in the overall population and within the subgroups such as healthy population, athletes and participants with any pathology. ii) there is limited evidence in the association between overall physical fitness and TL in longitudinal studies and iii) there is no evidence on the effect of fitness on telomerase (Study I). iv) there is a significant effect on TL after the MCE intervention. v) the associations between fitness or cognitive changes as well as TL or telomerase after the MCE intervention are not conclusive enough (Study II). vi) The proteomics study shows many proteins differentially expressed in PBMCs after MCE, associated with several functions related to energy metabolism but also with other processes such as apoptosis or cell cycle control. vii) this study also supports that physical exercise could also have a sex-specific pattern. viii) proteomic changes after MCE detected in plasma are related to oxygen transport and oxidative stress. ix) proteins significantly altered after MCE and paramount measures of cognition, physical fitness and functionality have been correlated.