Cross-sectional analysis of coping strategies and anxiety and depression levels in a sample of the Andalusian population during the home lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic

  1. Antonio Zayas
  2. Serafín J. Cruces-Montes
  3. Alberto Paramio
  4. Antonio Romero-Moreno
  5. José-Antonio López-Sánchez
  6. Ana Merchán-Clavellino
  7. Diego Gómez-Carmona
  8. Rocío Guil
International Journal of Social Psychology, Revista de Psicología Social

ISSN: 0213-4748 1579-3680

Year of publication: 2022

Volume: 37

Issue: 1

Pages: 119-143

Type: Article

More publications in: International Journal of Social Psychology, Revista de Psicología Social


The restrictive measures put into place to control the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 have prompted the need to study the possible health impacts in the middle term. Deprivation of the fundamental right to mobility results in an increase in affective disorders and the risks that they entail for the population. The goal of this study is to examine anxiety and depression levels during the first national lockdown and to determine the key coping strategies in order to develop health treatment and promotion programmes. The sample, comprised of 485 participants (mean age = 40) from Andalusia, received questionnaires via email between March and June. The results showed that acceptance, active coping and humour were the most effective coping strategies to explain and predict a decrease in anxiety and depression within the context of the home lockdown. Therefore, we recommend that these coping strategies be studied in order to develop programmes that help prevent the psychological consequences of the lockdown.

Bibliographic References

  • Abel, M. H. (2002). Humor, stress, and coping strategies. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 15(4), 365–381.
  • Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Al-Homoud, A. H., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 34, 101615.
  • Anderson, E. S., Winett, R. A., & Wojcik, J. R. (2007). Self-regulation, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support: Social cognitive theory and nutrition behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 34(3), 304–312.
  • Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education & Behavior, 31(2), 143–164.
  • Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assesing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267–283.
  • Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol´s too long: Consider the brief-COPE. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4(1), 92–100.
  • Cedeño, N. J. V., Cuenca, M. F. V., Mojica, Á. A. D., & Portillo, M. T. (2020). Afrontamiento del COVID-19: Estrés, miedo, ansiedad y depresión. Enfermería Investiga, 5(3), 63–70.
  • Chua, S. E., Cheung, V., Cheung, C., McAlonan, G. M., Wong, J. W., Cheung, E. P., & Tsang, K. W. (2004). Psychological effects of the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong on high-risk health care workers. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 391–393.
  • Díaz, A. L., Prados, J. S. F., Canos, V. F., & Martínez, A. M. M. (2020). Impactos del confinamiento por el COVID-19 entre universitarios: Satisfacción Vital, Resiliencia y Capital Social Online. RISE, 9(1), 79–104.
  • Farré, L., Fawaz, Y., González, L., & Graves, J. (2020). How the covid-19 lockdown affected gender inequality in paid and unpaid work in Spain (IZA Discussion Paper 13434).
  • Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3), 571–579.
  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3), 219–239.
  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: A study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 150–170.
  • Henderson, D. A., & Denison, D. R. (1989). Stepwise regression in social and psychological research. Psychological Reports, 64(1), 251–257.
  • Jeong, H., Yim, H. W., Song, Y. J., Ki, M., Min, J. A., Cho, J., & Chae, J. H. (2016). Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East respiratory syndrome. Epidemiology and Health, 38, e2016048.
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer.
  • Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present, and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55(3), 234–247.
  • Lilliefors, H. W. (1967). On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 62(318), 399–402.
  • Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 11–21.
  • Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., Wang, W., song, H., Huang, B., Zhu, N., Bi, Y., Ma, X., Zhan, F., Wang, L., Hu, T., Zhou, H., Hu, Z., Zhou, W., Zhao, L., Chen, J., & Tan, W. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet, 395(10224), 565–574.
  • Mejorada, R. E. O., Tufiño, M. A. T., Sierra, A. V., Guerrero, O. T., Rosas, A. R., & Sosa, J. J. S. (2013). Afrontamiento en pacientes con cáncer de mama en radioterapia: Análisis de la Escala COPE Breve. Psicología y salud, 23(1), 55–62.
  • Mella-Morambuena, J., López-Angulo, Y., Sáez-Delgado, Y., & Del Valle, M. (2020). Estrategias de afrontamiento en apoderados durante el confinamiento por la COVID-19. CienciAmérica, 9(2), 322–333.
  • Morán, C., Landero, R., & González, M. T. (2010). COPE-28: Un análisis psicométrico de la versión en español del Brief COPE. Universitas Psychologica, 9(2), 543–552.
  • Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113108.
  • Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Dosil-Santamaria, M., Picaza-Gorrochategui, M., & Idoiaga-Mondragon, N. (2020). Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 36.
  • Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Idoiaga Mondragon, N., Dosil Santamaría, M., & Picaza Gorrotxategi, M. (2020). Psychological symptoms during the two stages of lockdown in response to the COVID-19 outbreak: An investigation in a sample of citizens in Northern Spain. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1491.
  • Ramírez-Ortiz, J., Castro-Quintero, D., Lerma-Córdoba, C., Yela-Ceballos, F., & Escobar-Córdoba, F. (2020). Consecuencias de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental asociadas al aislamiento social. SciELO Preprints, 1, 1–21.
  • Rodríguez-Rey, R., Garrido-Hernansaiz, H., & Collado, S. (2020). Psychological impact and associated factors during the initial stage of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic among the general population in Spain. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1540.
  • Ruan, S. (2020). Likelihood of survival of coronavirus disease 2019. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 630–631.
  • Sandín, B., & Chorot, P. (2017). Cuestionario de sucesos vitales (CSV). Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 22(2), 95–115.
  • Sandín, B., Valiente, R. M., García-Escalera, J., & Chorot, P. (2020). Impacto psicológico de la pandemia de COVID-19: Efectos negativos y positivos en población española asociados al periodo de confinamiento nacional. Revista de Psicopatologia y Psicologia Clinica, 25(1).
  • Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 74(4), 281.
  • Simpson, D., Suarez, L., Cox, L., & Connolly, S. (2018). The role of coping strategies in understanding the relationship between parental support and psychological outcomes in anxious youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35(4), 407–421.
  • Terol, M. C., López-Roig, S., Rodríguez-Marín, J., Martín-Aragón, M., Pastor, M. A., & Reig, M. T. (2007). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Estrés (HAD) en población española. Ansiedad y Estrés, 13(2–3), 163–176.
  • Umucu, E., & Lee, B. (2020). Examining the impact of COVID-19 on stress and coping strategies in individuals with disabilities and chronic conditions. Rehabilitation Psychology, 65(3), 193.
  • Viana, R. B., & De Lira, C. A. B. (2020). Exergames as coping strategies for anxiety disorders during the COVID-19 quarantine period. Games for Health Journal, 9(3), 147–149.
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.
  • Xiang, Y. T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), 228–229.
  • Xu, Z., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Zhang, C., & Wang, F. S. (2020). Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(4), 420–422.
  • Zigmond, A., & Snaith, R. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370.